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How do Zero-Knowledge Proofs enhance the privacy and scalability of blockchains?
An introductory guide to zk-Proofs, and how they enhance the privacy and scalability of blockchains.
June 5, 2023
5 min read

Blockchain has revolutionized various industries by offering decentralized, secure, and transparent systems. However, challenges such as privacy and scalability have emerged as significant concerns. This article explores how Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) can address these challenges and shape the future of Web3 technology.

What are zk-Proofs?

Zero-Knowledge Proofs are cryptographic protocols that allow a party to prove knowledge of a certain fact without revealing any information about it. In other words, they enable verification of the truthfulness of a statement without disclosing the underlying data. ZKPs were introduced by Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, and Charles Rackoff in the 1980s. However, it wasn’t until the development of the ZK-SNARK protocol in 2014 by a team of researchers led by Eli Ben-Sasson, that ZKPs gained significant attention for their potential applications in various fields, including the crypto space.

There are different types of Zero-Knowledge Proofs, each serving specific purposes:

  1. zk-SNARKs (Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments of Knowledge) allow for the construction of compact proofs that can be verified quickly. They are widely used in blockchain networks like Zcash and Ethereum, enabling private transactions while maintaining the integrity of the network.
  2. zk-STARK (zero knowledge Scalable Transparent Argument of Knowledge), which uses cryptographic methods less susceptible to an attack by theoretical quantum computers, and do not require a trusted setup. However they may have some computational restrictions and have a large proof size.
  3. ZK-rollups, a layer 2 solution originally intended to address Ethereum’s scalability limits, by processing computations offchain, “rollin up” and submitting this bundle of transactions to mainnet using a compressed proof.
  4. zkApps, or ZK-powered smart contracts, can perform computations off-chain to be verified on-chain, which means your information never leaves your local device or your data ends up in some centralized server.
  5. Bulletproofs: Bulletproofs are a type of zero-knowledge proof that enables efficient range proofs, ensuring that a value lies within a specific range without revealing the actual value. They have been implemented in projects such as Monero, enhancing privacy and scalability.

Enhancing Privacy and Scalability

Zk- proofs have a profound impact on privacy. By using ZKPs, users can prove the validity of their transactions or data without revealing the sender, recipient, or the transaction amount. This feature enhances anonymity and confidentiality, making blockchain systems more appealing for applications where privacy is crucial, such as financial transactions, healthcare records, identity management, and secure voting systems..

ZKPs also enable scalability improvements by reducing the amount of data that needs to be processed and stored by blockchain nodes. This is achieved through a process called ‘batching’, where multiple transactions are combined into a single proof, reducing the computational load on the network. For example, ZKSync Era, a trustless Layer-2 protocol, is a zk rollup that scales Ethereum by using cryptographic validity proofs to provide scalable and low-cost transactions. In zkSync, computation is performed off-chain and most data is stored off-chain as well. However, all the transactions are still verified and validated on the Ethereum mainchain, ensuring that users have the same level of security as they would with regular Ethereum transactions.

The Challenges

Despite their potential, zk-Proofs face several challenges:

  1. Computational Overhead: Generating and verifying ZKPs can be computationally intensive, potentially impacting the scalability of blockchain networks.
  2. Trusted Setup: Some implementations of ZKPs  require a trusted setup phase, which introduces a level of centralization and raises concerns about the security and trustworthiness of the system.
  3. Adoption and Education: ZKPs are a complex topic, and their adoption requires significant education and understanding among developers, users, and regulators.

The Future Outlook of ZKPs

Looking ahead, we can expect advancements in zk technology that address the current challenges Some potential developments include:

  1. Improved Efficiency: Research is ongoing to optimize the computational efficiency of zk- Proofs, reducing the overhead and enabling broader adoption in resource-constrained environments.
  2. Scalability Solutions: Layer 2 scaling solutions like ZK-rollups and ZK-STARKs will continue to evolve, providing enhanced scalability while preserving privacy.
  3. Standardization and Interoperability: Efforts to standardize zk- Proof protocols and improve interoperability between different platforms will facilitate broader adoption and integration.
  4. Quantum-Resistant zk-Proofs: With the rise of quantum computing, developing ZKPs resistant to quantum attacks will be a crucial area of research and development.

ZKP’s offer a promising solution to the privacy and scalability challenges faced by current Web3 technologies. By enabling secure, private transactions, they pave the way for a future where decentralized applications can thrive while protecting user data. While challenges exist, ongoing research continues to enhance the efficiency, scalability, and usability of ZK technology, shaping the future of blockchain and its potential impact on other industries.

Our 2023 Q1 Quarterly Insights dives deeper into the different applications of zk-Proofs, presenting an introduction to the problems being tackled in the frontier. It also focuses on specific use cases, shedding light on notable teams building innovative projects that take advantage of zero-knowledge. Check it out here.

About Chorus One

Chorus One is one of the biggest institutional staking providers globally operating infrastructure for 40+ Proof-of-Stake networks including Ethereum, Cosmos, Solana, Avalanche, and Near amongst others. Since 2018, we have been at the forefront of the PoS industry and now offer easy enterprise-grade staking solutions, industry-leading research, and also invest in some of the most cutting-edge protocols through Chorus Ventures.

The Spotlight: May 2023 Staking Roundup
Stay in the staking loop, gain exclusive insights, and never miss a beat with Chorus One's monthly newsletter.
June 2, 2023
5 min read

The first half of 2023 has been marked by a flurry of captivating events in the crypto sphere, and we have only just begun to scratch the surface of what lies ahead for the remainder of the year. Rest assured, as The Spotlight curates the finest selection of staking news each month.

But that's not all. In May, we were highly productive, engaging in exciting projects and concocting a wealth of crypto knowledge. This newsletter serves as your exclusive invitation to delve into the plethora of developments we pursued last month, ensuring you remain well-informed and up-to-date. Moreover, as believers in a global crypto community, we're always on the move. So, find out where our team will be in June below!


1. Ledger by Chorus One: Securely stake your tokens via the Ledger Live App

With Ledger’s extended compatibility with the Cosmos ecosystem, over 1.5 million Ledger Live users can now stake numerous tokens including Onomy, Quicksilver, Persistence, and more through nodes operated by Chorus One. Read all about it here.

2. Lido upgrades to V2 mainnet

After a successful governance vote, liquid staking protocol Lido upgraded to its second version, enabling users to unstake their stETH and receive ETH at a 1:1 ratio. We’ve captured everything you need to know about why this is significant here.

3. The number of staked ETH hit its all time high since Shapella

The amount of staked ETH continued to grow since the advent of Shapella upgrade, having surged by a mighty 4.4M since withdrawals were enabled. We’ve explained why this trend is likely to continue here.

4. $700m staked ETH shifts away from centralised exchanges

Regulatory concerns and the allure of higher rewards prompt investors to flock to decentralised liquid staking protocols, leaving traditional exchanges in the dust. Read all about it here.



We’re proud to announce that our multi-chain staking solution, OPUS, is now live and running! OPUS allows our customers to stake with utmost ease, and earn maximum rewards while having complete control over their nodes. OPUS also comes with a range of features that optimise the staking experience for our customers. Read all about it here.

Ledger by Chorus One

We’re delighted to be partnering with Ledger Live to support their extended compatibility with the bolstering Cosmos ecosystem. This partnership permits a larger number of crypto investors to stake Cosmos tokens on the Ledger Live App through nodes operated by Chorus One. More on this here.

Recently, our Chief Commercial Officer, Felix Lustch, was joined by Ledger’s Global Head of Client Success Lila Garcia and Anchorage Digital’s Head of Product, Boaz Avital to explore future trends in the staking frontier. They had an insightful discussion, covering topics including the latest advancements in staking infrastructure, regulatory movements, and risk management in crypto. If you missed it, feel free to watch the recording here.

Stake SUI with Chorus One

SUI Network is the latest network to join the ranks of networks supported by Chorus One. After three testnet waves, Sui launched their Mainnet this month, and we're proud to support the growth of the network as one of the genesis validators. Our blog delves into the unique characteristics of the Sui network and explains how you can start staking SUI with Chorus One. Read it here.

Gelato x Chorus One

Chorus One has partnered with Gelato Network as one of the genesis node operators for GEL staking! We participated in a number of discussions exploring this partnership and the future of GEL staking, which you can hear here.

Fordefi x Chorus One

We’re proud to announce our partnership with Fordefi,  a leading MPC wallet platform and web3 gateway,  facilitating Chorus One’s customers to stake and unstake multiple tokens using the Fordefi wallet inside OPUS. Full details here.


1. Quarterly Insights

Our research team produces an in-depth analysis of the industry's biggest trends every quarter. We published the first edition of 2023’s quarterly insights, which covers:

  • Cross-chain MEV: A New Frontier in DeFi
  • Evolution of Shared Security
  • The Start of ZK Season
  • App-chain thesis and Avalanche subnets

Read the full report here.

2. Beyond Shapella

Ever since the Shapella upgrade, the influx of institutional interest in ETH staking has been remarkable. Our blog delves into the reasons behind this trend and why we expect this trajectory to continue. Read it here.

3. A guide to Lido V2

Lido upgraded to its V2 Mainnet - making stETH withdrawals possible for its users, and paving way for a more decentralised future to the Ethereum network. We covered everything you need to know about this upgrade, and why it’s so significant. Read it here.

4. Key takeaways - the evolution of Shared Security

Shared Security is a method aimed at enhancing the safety of a blockchain by leveraging resources from other blockchains. Several PoS networks adopt shared security as a strategy to fortify their blockchain's security while introducing new use cases. Our article provides a clear overview of how shared security has evolved and offers concise explanations of its implementation across various PoS networks. Read it here.


June 1-2 | Crypto Valley Conference | Rotkreuz, CH

The Chorus One team will be attending the Crypto Valley Conference on June 1-2, in Rotkreuz, CH. If you’re attending, look out for one of our team members including Meher Roy, Tomas Matta, Rakesh Bhagloe, Neal Roche, or Michael Moser to discuss what we’re currently working on, or to address any questions you may have about staking.

Also, if you’re attending, don’t miss out on the tax roundtable that Rakesh Bhagloe from our Finance team will be participating in alongside industry professionals from KPMG, MME, and Safe to discuss how VAT is treated in DLT transactions.

To register, visit:  

C1 - Crypto Valley

June 3-5 | Gateway Conference 2023 | Prague, CR

Join our Partnership Manager, Yannick Socolov, as he shares his insights on the secrets of building thriving and enduring Web3 communities at 3.30pm on June 5th.

To register, visit:

Screenshot 2023-05-31 at 12.21.11

About Chorus One

Chorus One is one of the biggest institutional staking providers globally operating infrastructure for 40+ Proof-of-Stake networks including Ethereum, Cosmos, Solana, Avalanche, and Near amongst others. Since 2018, we have been at the forefront of the PoS industry and now offer easy enterprise-grade staking solutions, industry-leading research, and also invest in some of the most cutting-edge protocols through Chorus Ventures.

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