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Understanding Aptos: How its Technical Architecture and Modular Design Transcends Monolithic Chains
Deep dive into Aptos' multi-layer approach that outperforms monolithic chains
May 16, 2024
5 min read

In blockchains, reliability and accessibility are key factors for increased web3 adoption, addressing certain bottlenecks in existing layer-1 protocol implementations. In distributed systems such as blockchain, the process of carrying out a transaction differs from modifying the ledger's state and recording the outcomes.

Aptos is designed in a modular way, which enables quick development and facilitates faster release cycles. Unlike monolithic architectures that require extensive time for editing, auditing, and testing, this modular approach allows changes to be focused on specific modules. This offers a systematic way to expand validators beyond just one machine by granting them access to more computational power, network capabilities, and storage options.

A brief introduction to Aptos

Aptos is a Layer 1 Proof-of-Stake blockchain. It uses Move, a programming language developed from Meta’s Diem and Novi projects. Move is designed for safety and reliability, harnessing the power of Rust, a low-level programming language.

Aptos’ technological stack features many novel models, including the AptosBFTv4 consensus mechanism, the Quorum Store mempool protocol, the Block-STM parallel execution engine, and Move on Aptos. The transaction flow on Aptos is distinctly different from most competing networks, with every step of the process—from broadcasting transactions, ordering block metadata, to consolidating storage—happening concurrently in a modular fashion.

Deep Dive into Aptos Consensus Mechanism - AptosBFT

AptosBFT, originally named DiemBFT, is a consensus algorithm developed by Diem’s core blockchain developers, many of whom now contribute to Aptos through Aptos Labs. AptosBFT implements increased throughput and lower latency compared to existing PBFT through a round-by-round consensus and block chaining. AptosBFT v4 enhances transaction processing speed through linear communication and chaining, improving synchronization speed among validators via a 'Pacemaker' and 'Timeout' mechanism.

The Aptos Labs team also introduced Quorum Store, an implementation of Narwhal. Quorum improves consensus throughput by decoupling data dissemination from network consensus. Before Quorum Store, transaction processing involved two major phases: Mempool and Consensus. An intermediate phase, the Quorum phase, was added between them. The Mempool holds potential user transactions, Quorum Store pulls batches of these transactions, broadcasts them, and forms proofs of their availability. Consensus orders these proofs, and execution uses Quorum Store to map them back to the corresponding transaction batches, thereby solving the problem of transaction redundancy efficiently.

Architectural Design

DPoS - Delegated Staking: This serves as an expansion of the staking protocol. It involves a delegation pool acting as an intermediary between the stake owner and the validator. This pool can gather stakes from delegators and include them in the native stake pool linked to the validator on their behalf. This system enables various entities to meet the criteria for a validator to join the set by pooling stakes. Delegators have the option to contribute to an inactive pool, but rewards are only earned once it becomes active. The minimum stake is 11 APT, with the option to unstake at any time, but funds are not available until the next validator unlock date. Delegators are paid 8% of the service fees.

Move: Aptos blockchain seamlessly incorporates and utilizes the Move programming language for rapid and reliable transaction processing. The Move Prover, a formal validator for smart contracts written in Move, offers security against common errors, providing builders and developers tools to defend projects against attack vectors like double-spending.

Parallel Execution: Aptos handles transaction processing in parallel without requiring an upfront declaration of user-known dependencies, unlike other blockchains such as Solana and Sui. This approach facilitates more intricate transactions, reducing costs and latency for end users.

Transaction Flow: Aptos maximizes throughput and reduces complexity in transaction processing by dividing it into three stages: pipelining, batching, and parallel execution. These stages can be parallelized, enabling novel modes of validator-client interaction and enhancing development timelines by treating each phase as a separate entity. Transactions are organized into batches by each validator, merged into blocks through a consensus mechanism.


The native token of the Aptos ecosystem (APT token) serves multiple purposes:

  • Transaction Fees: The native token pays for network transactions and rewards validators.
  • Validator Staking: Token holders can stake their APT, contributing to the network's security and stability, and earning additional APT tokens.
  • Governance: Token holders can participate in on-chain governance, voting on protocol upgrades, changes to economic parameters, and other proposals.

As of October 2022, the total token supply of APT is 1 billion tokens, with a circulating supply of 130,000,000.

Aptos Ecosystem

The Aptos ecosystem is growing thanks to continued efforts to improve UX through safety and performance.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Several DeFi projects are building DEX Aggregator, DeFi HyperApp, Liquidity engine, and perpetual DEX on Aptos.

Improved User Experience (UX): Platforms are building tools and products to simplify the process of building scalable applications on Aptos.

On-chain Gaming: Platforms are using Aptos SDK to build multi-platform applications by bringing decentralization to Unity developers.

Aptos is also facilitating interoperability by launching bridges like Wormhole on Aptos that allow native Ethereum and Solana users to move into the Aptos ecosystem.

Aptos’ Future

Technical Improvements: Contributors to the Aptos protocol are committed to making the network more scalable, performant, and robust. The team at Aptos Labs developed a solution for deep testing called  Previewnet that replicates what Aptos mainnet will look like in the coming months.

The team also unlocked a new record of >30k TPS  (Transaction per seconds) in the Previewnet. Aptos is striving to expand scalability even more, aiming for >100k TPS as their next goal on the path to surpassing 1 million TPS. This bold target is in line with Aptos' goal of building a platform that can cater to billions of users, paving the way for widespread adoption of Web3 technologies.

Ecosystem Partnerships: Aptos collaborates with industry leaders like Google Cloud, Microsoft, and MoonPay, indicating potential for future growth and adoption.

Further Reading and Resources


Developer Documentation:





About Chorus One

Chorus One is one of the biggest institutional staking providers globally, operating infrastructure for 50+ Proof-of-Stake networks, including Ethereum, Cosmos, Solana, Avalanche, and Near, amongst others. Since 2018, we have been at the forefront of the PoS industry and now offer easy enterprise-grade staking solutions, industry-leading research, and also invest in some of the most cutting-edge protocols through Chorus Ventures. We are a team of over 50 passionate individuals spread throughout the globe who believe in the transformative power of blockchain technology.

Restaking Synopsis (week c/ May 6 - May 10)
A roundup of the key EigenLayer ecosystem highlights by Chorus One
May 11, 2024
5 min read

Before getting started with this edition of the Restaking Synopsis, we’d like to take a moment to highlight our uniqueAVS Selection Framework, that we announced on Thursday, May 9th!


Since EigenLayer launched, operators have been busy onboarding every AVS out there. But there’s only 1 problem with that - this may not be a wise long-term approach.

We've detailed why in an article (linked below), and to summarize, here's what sets our approach apart:

🛑 No "Onboard All" Promise: We prioritize AVSs with breakout potential, filtering out those with complexity and risk.

Rigorous Criteria: Our selection filters are based on strict engineering, security, and economic factors.

🎖Quality Over Quantity: Only AVSs that meet our criteria will be onboarded.

This reflects our customer-first principle and long-term vision for the EigenLayer ecosystem.

Feel free to check out the full article for more details on our AVS Selection Framework, why we're taking this unique approach, and why this approach is an important consideration for EigenLayer users.

Read the entire article here:

🌟BONUS: Here's a meme-thread explanation of our AVS Selection:

Ecosystem Highlights
  1. Chorus One announces a unique AVS selection framework.
  2. New AVS Supported by Chorus One: Lagrange. Details here.
  3. EigenDA opens claims window for EIGEN on May 10 (Scroll down for details)
  4. Chorus One joins the select group of operators running Eoracle's latest release on Mainnet.
  5. Sreeram Kannan provides insights on intersubjective truth and use-cases of AVSs with intersubjective slashing.
Got LSTs? Restake them with EigenLayer using OPUS Pool!  

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Your guide to OPUS Pool:

EigenDA: The EIGEN claims window is open. 🔥

As of May 10, you can claim your EIGEN, restake it (if you haven’t already) and choose to delegate to an EigenLayer Operator for future rewards!

The steps?

1. Claim EIGEN here:

2. Restake it (if you haven’t already):

3. Delegate your restaked assets to Chorus One:

Note: You can currently only restake and delegate your EIGEN via the EigenLayer dashboard.

Final Word

If you’re interested in learning more about staking/restaking with Chorus One, simply reach out to us at and we’ll be happy to get back to you!

Additionally, if you’d like us to share further resources on any topic, please let us know!

Thanks for reading and see you next time!

About Chorus One

Chorus One is one of the biggest institutional staking providers globally, operating infrastructure for 50+ Proof-of-Stake networks, including Ethereum, Cosmos, Solana, Avalanche, and Near, amongst others. Since 2018, we have been at the forefront of the PoS industry and now offer easy enterprise-grade staking solutions, industry-leading research, and also invest in some of the most cutting-edge protocols through Chorus Ventures. We are a team of over 50 passionate individuals spread throughout the globe who believe in the transformative power of blockchain technology.

The Chorus One approach to AVS selection
We outline Chorus One's thesis on the EigenLayer ecosystem, our strict onboarding policy, and our track record
May 9, 2024
5 min read

Our EigenLayer strategy is to onboard all the AVSs that have chances of being break-out winners, while filtering out the long tail of AVSs that introduce complexity and risk. With this combination, we aim to deliver the best risk-adjusted reward APY to users delegating their restaked assets to by Chorus One. The first section covers our thesis, the second our onboarding policy and the third our track record.

1: Our thesis

The EigenLayer ecosystem will have hundreds of AVSs and be the leading mechanism for Ethereum to scale and service billions of users.

We expect individual AVSs to follow a power law distribution in competency and success, similar to the patterns observed elsewhere in crypto. For Cosmos, an application-specific ecosystem similar to EigenLayer, this data-set shows 6 chains have over $1 billion circulating market cap, 16 are between $100 million and $1 billion, and 42 are under $100 million. Most Cosmos chains never achieve significant success, with market caps exceeding $100 million. The median chain barely gains traction and struggles for attention and impact. In the broader crypto market, there are ~14,000 tokens (from CoinGecko). The median token is illiquid. All the realized alpha in crypto lies in the outliers - the top 500 chains with market caps above $90 million and sufficient liquidity. AVSs will be similar - all the returns will exist in the top 20% of AVSs.

Not only are successful AVSs the exception, but there is major alpha in early participation in promising projects with no defined market value. Most AVS projects will spend significant time in a pre-launch phase where the mainnet service does not exist. Testnets are rolled out while the developers build functionality and product features. During this phase, there is no clarity on the economics of reward delivery of the AVS. There is also no market cap, token supply, or token price information to rely on. There are likely also caps on the number of operators that can be enrolled by the project developers for testing. Because of the lack of information and transparency in the market, the overall ecosystem of Node Operators (NO’s) and restakers cannot perfectly judge the project. Hence, outsized yields, can be produced. The EIGEN token delivers the best example of such an opportunity - it delivered returns to early restakers in the 30%-60% range, depending on when exactly the restakers participated and how trading markets stabilize.

It is possible (and a mistake) to onboard the entire long-tail of AVSs. Such an approach will radically boost infrastructure complexity and risk. Complexity and risk lead to the need to charge high commissions, thus reducing the risk-adjusted APY for restakers. Eventually, it accentuates slashing risk. Technical due diligence, that tests for originality and legitimacy of software work, as well as application of software development best practices has always been and continues to be the best method for filtering out the long tail, and narrowing focus on the break-out winners.

2: Our onboarding framework

We will apply our infrastructure effort in a subset of chains that pass our strict filtering criteria. When multiple AVSs pass our filtering criteria concurrently, our internal prioritization will look at the positive signals from the projects.

Our filtering criteria focuses on evaluating the software engineering of projects. Our method for evaluation consists of 3 parts:

  • Is there a development team on the other side following good code development practices? Any competent developer or developers will produce a trace of code changes, testing suites, logical parts with commit messages, issues, debates, discussions, technical whitepapers and documentation. If these are absent, chances are high that it is an unoriginal cut-paste job belonging to the long tail of AVSs.
  • Will running this code put Chorus One infrastructure at risk? Every AVS binary we run requires access to our internal network and access to some keys. These are critical resources that can be used to attack Chorus One if the development team is malicious. It is non-negotiable for us to be able to see the source code of the AVS, and for the code binary to require access to an isolated set of keys corresponding to (only) the AVS. This filter is important so that our infrastructure remains at low risk of slashing.
  • Will the project have release management conducive to running the network stably? This is the least important factor, because this can be upgraded at later parts of a project. The essence of it is that we will be running a binary, and be subject to network issues. Is there someone to reach out with help when issues are hit? Is there a consistent way to deal with security updates? Is there a clear communication channel? etc. Bad release management is indicative of a disengaged development team, again likely belonging to the long tail.

Our filtering criteria focuses not on the easily molded exteriors of the project - the website, the podcasts or the marketing - but rather on the hard to change signal-rich factors that usually accompany a winning project in crypto.

When multiple AVSs cross our filter and require prioritization, we will prioritize them depending on the following signals:

  1. Network or Product Idea: Is the service produced by the network novel and value generating for some segment of users?
  2. Work History and Team reputation: Are the early team members reputed or have significant prior contributions?
  3. Backing by reputable investors: Investment by investors is a way of developing more confidence in (1) and (2). As such, it is the weakest positive signal because it relies on hearsay, rather than first hand experience.

3: Our track record

We’ve applied a similar framework for our onboardings across Cosmos and in our venture investments. Chorus One is the most successful validator venture investor counting early participation in Solana, Lido, Celestia, Dymension, Saga, Wormhole, GogoPool, Neutron and Osmosis. In addition, we have infrastructure certifications highlighting the care with which we operate the networks.

Cosmos is the best example of an alternative application specific eco-system similar to EigenLayer. Our selection process, applied over 6 years has consistently picked all the top 20 chains, except two. On Cosmos, we have the best track record on participating with the governance processes of application specific chains.

Our early experience in EigenLayer, which includes research on network wide risk and slashing cascades, reinforces our belief in our onboarding process. We’ve encountered AVSs with plagiarized code, closed source code, and AVSs with key management systems that would expose our entire EigenLayer setup (operator key) to attack. These experiences have made it impossible for us to follow an “onboard all AVSs” path.

As a restaker with Chorus One, you derive the following benefits with our approach:

  • A Node Operator that takes infrastructure risk seriously, and is the best prepared for slashing features to go-live on the ecosystem.
  • A Node Operator that capitalizes on the gains from early participation in winning AVSs by investing all their energy in doing that well, instead of trying to onboard every below average project.

We will never be the operator with the most number of AVSs onboarded. And that works because it is far more critical to be early supporters of the break-out successes. Here’s to finding the gems early!

Restaking with Chorus One

Seamlessly restake with Chorus One using OPUS Pool:

Here's a step-by-step guide to using OPUS Pool:

About Chorus One

Chorus One is one of the biggest institutional staking providers globally, operating infrastructure for 50+ Proof-of-Stake networks, including Ethereum, Cosmos, Solana, Avalanche, and Near, amongst others. Since 2018, we have been at the forefront of the PoS industry and now offer easy enterprise-grade staking solutions, industry-leading research, and also invest in some of the most cutting-edge protocols through Chorus Ventures. We are a team of over 50 passionate individuals spread throughout the globe who believe in the transformative power of blockchain technology.

The Imperative for Bitcoin Layers
An exploration of the intricacies of Bitcoin Layers and key projects building within the ecosystem
April 26, 2024
5 min read

Bitcoin's Layer 1, revered for its unparalleled security and decentralization, has faced scrutiny over its scalability, cost, and throughput limitations. These constraints catalyzed the emergence of alternative networks like Ethereum, designed with smart contracting capabilities at their core. However, the narrative is shifting. With the introduction of Layer 2 solutions that integrate DeFi functionalities to Bitcoin, it’s poised to expand its utility far beyond a store of value.

In this article, we delve into the intricacies of Bitcoin Layers, and explore some of the projects in the space we’re most excited about.

As a team that is continually researching new technologies and exploring promising narratives, we’re thrilled to expand our expertise in the Bitcoin economy and collaborate with key players building in this ecosystem.

The Bitcoin Problem

Before delving into the nuances of Bitcoin Layer 2 solutions, let's take a step back and understand the core concept of Layer 2s. A Layer 2 is built on top of the base chain (Layer 1) to improve scalability and transaction throughput.

Bitcoin and Ethereum are Layer 1 protocols, serving as the settlement layer for all transactions on their respective networks. Layer 2 solutions offer a way to increase transaction speeds and scale the network while benefiting from the security of the main chain.

While numerous Layer 2 solutions, such as rollups, side chains, and channels, are already building on Ethereum, and Bitcoin Layer 2s have been in development for some time, several projects are now closer to launching and expanding Bitcoin's utility. However, scaling Bitcoin presents unique intricacies that need to be addressed.

The most crucial requirement for a Bitcoin Layer 2 solution lies in deriving its security from Bitcoin's own security model, a task that proves challenging in practice. To effectively secure a Layer 2, Bitcoin must possess the computational capability to validate the behavior of the Layer 2. However, Bitcoin's current computational capacity falls short compared to Ethereum's Layer 2 solutions.

For instance, Ethereum rollups derive their security from the Layer 1 by either verifying a zero-knowledge proof (zk-rollup) or confirming a fraud proof (optimistic rollup). Nevertheless, there are ongoing proposals aimed at enhancing Bitcoin's functionality to enable the base layer to validate zk-Proofs submitted by rollups. Additionally, initiatives like BitVM strive to implement fraud proofs without necessitating alterations to the base layer.

While solutions are emerging to address this challenge, they bring their own set of architectural choices and leverage novel technologies to find viable solutions. As the development of Bitcoin Layer 2s progresses, the ecosystem will need to carefully evaluate the trade-offs and implications of each approach.

Architecture Choices for Bitcoin's Layer 2

Bitcoin's Layer 2 solutions face unique challenges in trying to improve upon the base layer. These challenges revolve around three main goals: handling more transactions, maintaining robust security, and ensuring that the system remains decentralized. Here's a simpler look at each goal:

  1. Scalability (Handling More Transactions):
    • Goal: To process more transactions than Bitcoin's main network and support more complex types of transactions.
    • How It's Done: By using a Virtual Machine (VM) and an additional chain or blockspace, which is like a special computer system that can perform complex operations needed for advanced financial tasks.
    • Balancing Act: It’s important that these systems are not too complex, so developers are willing to build on them and people want to use them.
    • Current Solutions: Some solutions introduce new environments like VMs for handling these complex operations, or use off-chain contracts, which means some transactions are processed away from Bitcoin’s main network for efficiency. Stacks introduces clarityVM and microblocks between bitcoin blocks in a separate chain. Mezo has a EVM chain.

  2. Security (Keeping the System Safe):
    • Goal: To ensure that transactions are secure, accessible, resistant to censorship, and protected.
    • How It's Done: By using Bitcoin's existing security features and adapting them to work with new Layer 2 functionalities.
    • Current Solutions: Some are using comprehensive VMs that try to settle transactions directly on the Bitcoin network or use specific contracts similar to the Lightning Network. In contrast to Ethereum, which can handle very complex security mechanisms, Bitcoin requires simpler solutions or entirely new coding instructions (opcodes) because its base layer is less complex. A common attempt to increase security is to decentralize the multisig of parties who settle transactions on Bitcoin. Twilight is a good example of a reinforced multisig. Mezo uses tBTC trustless bridging technology.

  3. Decentralization (Keeping the System Open and Accessible):
    • Goal: To ensure that anyone can participate in verifying transactions and that the system does not rely heavily on central authorities.
    • How It's Done: By making it easier for individuals to access and verify the blockchain's data.
    • Current Solutions: Encouraging the use of an open network where anyone can join, or a federation system where a group of parties manage the system together, which still aims to distribute control rather than centralize it. StackingDAO for example builds onStacks and removes the stacking complexities for users who want to stake STX.

By focusing on these three areas, Bitcoin's Layer 2 aims to enhance the base layer's capabilities while adhering to the principles of scalability, security, and decentralization. This approach ensures that the network can grow and adapt to new demands without compromising on its core values.

Exploring Bitcoin Layers

In this section, we explore a few Bitcoin L2s that we’re excited about, and provide a quick overview of the project.


Overview: Stacks brings smart contracts and decentralized apps to Bitcoin using a unique Proof-of-Transfer (PoX) mechanism. Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Uses PoX alongside Bitcoin's Proof-of-Work, enabling Stacks to reuse Bitcoin's computational power.
  • Security: Participants, or "Stackers", lock up STX tokens to support network operations and in return, earn Bitcoin as rewards. Post Nakamoto upgrade, “Stackers” will also validate blocks, hence the emergence of liquid stacking solutions like StackingDAO.
  • Unique Aspect: Novel consensus mechanism and unique VM (Clarity) to maximize alignment with Bitcoin programming structure.

Lightning Network

Overview: Designed for fast and cost-effective micropayments on Bitcoin.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Operates using off-chain payment channels for transaction handling, with settlements finalized on Bitcoin’s blockchain.
  • Performance: Enables instant transactions, dramatically reducing the costs and delays typical of Bitcoin’s main network.

Rootstock (RSK)

Overview: Introduces Ethereum-compatible smart contracts to Bitcoin.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Combines Bitcoin’s Proof-of-Work through merged mining with a smart contract layer.
  • Compatibility: Allows existing Ethereum applications to transition to the Bitcoin ecosystem seamlessly.


Overview: Builds on BTC to EVM bridging technologies, offering a novel dual-token staking model via $HODL.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Based on a PoS consensus and supports BTC as a gas asset, facilitating integration between Bitcoin and Ethereum systems.
  • Staking: Allows BTC holders to stake directly, potentially earning higher rewards through a structured reward system.


Overview: The first implementation using BitVM, focusing on scalable and efficient transaction processing.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Utilizes optimistic rollups and a combination of virtual machines for executing and verifying transactions.
  • BitVM: Aims to implement fraud proofs to Bitcoin L1 by acting as a translator for Bitcoin scripts.


Overview: Merges Proof-of-Stake with Bitcoin’s robustness, focusing on cross-chain functionalities to offer Bitcoin restaking.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Leverages Bitcoin for timestamping and enables trustless staking on Bitcoin through its unique protocols. Timestaming is used to secure other PoS chains with Bitcoin, with the idea that block state can be recreated at any point in time.
  • Integration: Aims to provide security to decentralized systems via Bitcoin’s network.
  • Use cases: Fast un-bonding (e.g. reduce Cosmos staking 21 day un-bonding period), restaking or shared security, transaction protection and more.


Overview: Offers private and scalable off-chain Bitcoin payments.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Uses off-chain transaction outputs managed by service providers to facilitate transactions.
  • Privacy: Maintains user anonymity while reducing transaction costs compared to traditional Bitcoin transfers.


Overview: Implements a zk-rollup model to improve transaction efficiency and security on Bitcoin.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Utilizes zk-STARKs and ordinals for enhanced scalability and security, integrating smart contract capabilities.
  • Security: Uses discrete log contracts for bridging, relying on external oracles for state verification.


Overview: An Ethereum-based Proof-of-Stake Layer 2 that uses Bitcoin as its core asset for staking and governance.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Orchestrator nodes manage a multisig setup, enhancing interoperability and security. Offers a robust distributed network for it’s multisig operation, called the Spiderchain.
  • Currency: Features synthetic BTC as its native currency, pegged 1:1 with Bitcoin, aligning closely with Bitcoin’s value.


Overview: A zk-rollup solution that stores proofs and transaction data directly on Bitcoin's blockchain.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Utilizes recursive proofs to build a chain of trust, ensuring security and verifiability.
  • Inclusion: Allows users to force transaction inclusion via L1, promoting transparency and reducing potential for censorship.

BOB (Build-on-Bitcoin)

Overview: BOB is an Ethereum-based Layer 2 solution designed to integrate closely with Bitcoin, maintaining alignment with Bitcoin's principles.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Utilizes an Optimistic rollup approach on Ethereum, using Ethereum's Virtual Machine (EVM) for executing smart contracts. This positions it somewhat like a sidechain since its security is underpinned by Ethereum's Layer 1.
  • Interoperability: Supports different forms of Bitcoin on Ethereum, like Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) and TBTC, ensuring easy transition and integration within the Ethereum ecosystem.
  • Future Plans: Aims to implement a more robust and secure two-way bridge utilizing BitVM, enhancing connectivity between Bitcoin and Ethereum networks and improving overall security and functionality.


Overview: Twilight offers a platform for deploying privacy-focused decentralized exchanges and other applications, using advanced cryptographic methods to ensure security and privacy.

Key Features:

  • Mechanism: Employs the Boomerang trustless bridge, which uses a series of multisignature wallets with decremental time locks, releasing only a fraction of funds with each Bitcoin block, thus securing large amounts with a relatively smaller stake.
  • Security: Boomerang also uses Bitcoin for data availability, posting refund transactions at every Bitcoin block to ensure users can always retrieve their funds, even if the Layer 2 network goes offline.
  • Versatility: Twilight is designed to be virtual machine and stack agnostic, meaning it can work with various underlying technologies like the Cosmos SDK or the Polygon SDK, making it a flexible foundation for launching Layer 2 solutions with a focus on privacy.

…and more! Stay tuned for Part 2, where we'll delve into even more exciting projects emerging within the ecosystem.

Final Word

As a forward-thinking infrastructure provider, Chorus One is thrilled about the immense potential of integrating DeFi functionalities into Bitcoin and witnessing its evolution beyond being a store of value. Engaging in in-depth research into promising new technologies and projects, we're excited to explore a new landscape beyond Proof of Stake-based networks.

We're actively collaborating with L2s to delve deeper into the ecosystem. If you're interested in learning more or getting involved with some of the projects we're working with, please reach out to us at We'd be delighted to connect with you.

About Chorus One

Chorus One is one of the biggest institutional staking providers globally, operating infrastructure for 50+ Proof-of-Stake networks, including Ethereum, Cosmos, Solana, Avalanche, and Near, amongst others. Since 2018, we have been at the forefront of the PoS industry and now offer easy enterprise-grade staking solutions, industry-leading research, and also invest in some of the most cutting-edge protocols through Chorus Ventures. We are a team of over 50 passionate individuals spread throughout the globe who believe in the transformative power of blockchain technology.

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